Manufacturing process

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HOW IT WORKS

Manufacturing

An engine’s performance relies on the toughness of its cylinder liner. FabAuto manufactures automotive liners/sleeves fit for rugged haulers, truckers, and suave SUV drivers.

Our manufacturing foundry is the home of traditional foundry and advanced centrifugal casting technologies. The cylinder liner production line is where you find the action: large furnaces, fiery heat, and sweaty hard-working foundrymen working to melt metal chunks into lava-like fluids and hardening the fluid into the final product.

FabAuto expertly produces cylinder liners from specialized cast iron alloy and is machined by two-stage drilling. For the finale, the liners are honed to achieve the right roughness. We have CNCs, grinders, honing, and drilling machines to do the job and finish more than 500,000 pieces of alloy cast iron cylinder liners yearly.

Our team of quality inspectors, engineers, and professional workers work round the clock to produce robust cylinder liners fit for kings.

When overloaded, rapped, heated, dropped, or compressed, we ensure products will stay in shape and still provide good sliding surfaces for the most rugged engine operations.

FabAuto is a reliable partner when it comes to high-strength engine liners that boast enhanced tensile properties and free from impurities. We are able to meet and exceed international standards for high-quality and precision-made castings.

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RAW MATERIAL

Cylinder liners are made from cast iron, which contains graphite making it suitable as a natural lubricant. Some of the alloying elements we mix are chromium, molybdenum, nickel, copper, vanadium, titanium, phosphorus, and silicon to improve its mechanical and chemical properties.
For decades, FabAuto has been an expert in the selection and acquisition of high-quality, wear-resistant raw materials. We have a strict material quality implementation that only selects materials with the right properties and wear-resistant element doping ratio.
The materials go through a series of metallurgy tests before the smelting process to ensure we hit the most appropriate temperature and incubation time. This ensures that the casting is completed at one time without erroneous results.

Melting

Melting is at the beginning of the casting process. We take heed of the customers’ requirements first before melting the metal chunks into the furnace. To meet the constant demands of various customers and brands around the world, we have two 850-kg medium frequency induction furnaces used for our induction melting process.
In this step, pure metal is melted in the induction furnace and allowed to heat at very high temperatures to totally transform any metal pieces into liquid form in the crucible. We make sure that the metal we u

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Pouring

Next, the molten metal from the crucible is poured into a centrifugal die/cavity to get the right form. In our ferrous manufacturing grounds, we use a two-stage ladle transfer process to pour the liquid into the mold. One step involves a large ladle for pouring and the second stage involves industrial pouring based on the product weight.

In the pouring process, we standardize the metal alloy mixtures according to the formula specified by the client.

Certain alloying elements are also added with the proper percentages onto the treatment ladle prior to casting. For example, we can add grey iron, silicon, carbon, and other additives to cast iron to refine its surface, chemical composition and weight, and resistance to high temperature and pressure.

Centrifugal Casting

Centrifugal casting is the heart of our cylinder liner manufacturing process. At this step, the molten liquid having the right specifications is poured into a spinning mold that rotates at a high RPM. The constant spinning produces a centrifugal action forcing the metal into the inside wall of the die to produce a hollow cylindrical shape until it cools and solidifies. During the process, the impurities are left in the inside diameter of the tube, which will then be machined afterward.

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Roughing boring

Rough boring is the process that comes right after the centrifugal casting step in which we remove any suspended metal or scrap metals and prepare the hole for finishing. In this process, we carefully perform the boring operations using automated vertical machining centers. Our vertical machining centers are 3 and 5-axis, fully automatic, and performing at high load capabilities for more precise dimensional accuracy, taper, surface finish, and ovality.

Fine Boring

​Fine boring is the process where we perform a complete refinement of the bore that is produced during the rough boring process. This is where we machine the hole to achieve a close bore tolerance, center axis positioning, and exceptional surface finish. Fine boring machining is performed with cutting depths below 0.02 inches or 0.5 mm.

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Semi-finished outer circle Turing

Using a high-performance lathe machine, the cylinder sleeves are turned by piece to perform rough refinement of the outer diameter surface. These operations involve cutting the outer surface based on the material drawing specified by the clients.

In the same machine, we also perform inside diameter turning for groove locations for PC-rings, if the step is applicable to the drawing requirement. During the turning process, our engineers make sure the proper undercut dimensions are followed as this is where the fire ring that’s used to protect the liner will be located.

Outer Diameter CNC Turing

With a fully automated CNC machine, we perform the outer diameter turning to further enhance the dimensional accuracies, geometrical parameters, and surface roughness of the grooves and bore. We use a CNC turning machine to further eliminate inaccuracies that may not have been detected during the lathe machining process.

By this, all external diameters, end faces, and grooves are finished in a short manner of time meeting the product’s size tolerance.

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CNC honing

We utilize a fully automated CNC honing machine to create the best running surface for fitting the piston rings. In this step, we ensure the wave profile depth is uniform and set within tolerances. Using rubber sleeve tooling and double-feed grinding heads, the ovality and the uniform orientation of the inner hole are further enhanced.

Coreless mill

Utilizing a jig on the milling machine, scavenged airports are produced on the cylinder liner. We are using an advanced milling machine to guarantee dimensional accuracy and a balanced structure of the milled ports. This ensures that scavenged airports are maximized for air intake during combustion.

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FINAL INSPECTION

FINAL INSPECTION
Finally, our QC experts do a final inspection of the cylinder liners based on the standard drawings. This critical process is essential for the service life and reliability of the cylinder liners. Intricate, multi-stage inspection may reveal some non-compliant products which we need to send back to production or disregard from the finished product.

For this step, we do have complete tools for physical inspection of the cylinder liner structure, such as a digital vernier caliper, digital micrometer, roundness tester, pneumatic plug gauge, pneumatic ring gauge, and many more.

Our products should all meet automotive criteria standards for different global standards such as the IATF 16949: 2016.

Laser Marking

We use laser marking equipment to place the company’s brand/logo on the surface of the cylinder liner. As a cylinder liner manufacturer, we also accept OEM requests from different brands around the world.

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Pack & Ship

The packaging process involves cleaning the products, packing securely to prevent rusting, and storing. Each batch of finished cylinder liner packages is loaded in pallets or direct loading containers.

Testing Equipment

FabAuto houses several testing equipments such as Bulowie optical hardness tester, tensile testing machine, metallographic microscope, spectrometer, metallographic polishing machine, to test the cylinder liner samples. We ensure the liners are on the right hardness, chemical composition, metallographic structure, and strength before shipping.

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